Within the framework of the actual problem of comet-asteroid danger, the physical processes that cause the destruction and fragmentation of meteoric bodies in the Earth's atmosphere, in this case the Tunguska bolide, are numerically studied. The number of possible versions and hypotheses related to the Tunguska phenomenon is extremely large and continues to increase, therefore, an analysis and generalization of all known facts inherent in this non-standard catastrophic event is necessary, and only then proceed to the nomination of certain hypotheses explaining it. Based on the developed physical and mathematical model that determines the movement of space objects of natural origin in the atmosphere and their interaction with it, we have proposed two hypotheses explaining the processes occurring during the fall of the Tunguska body in 1908. The first hypothesis is related to the fragmentation of the body, which is a stone meteoroid into a large number of fragments, which collapsed in the dense layers of the atmosphere under the action of thermal stresses to the size of fine dust. The difficulties in identifying small particles that fell out as a result of the Tunguska event are mainly explained by the following circumstance: the timing of the initial search for traces of the fall of the body was removed from the moment of the event by as much as twenty years, during which a very significant number of other geophysical processes could occur in this area. The second hypothesis is related to phenomena that occur at small angles of entry of a body into the Earth's atmosphere. In this case, there is a change in the ballistics of its flight in the atmosphere, consisting in a transition from the fall mode to the ascent mode. This effect leads to the realization of the following possible scenarios of the event: the return of the body back to outer space at its residual velocity greater than the second cosmic one; the transition of the body to the orbit of the Earth satellite at a residual velocity greater than the first cosmic one; at lower values of the residual velocity of the body, its return after some time to the fall mode and reaching the earth's surface at a considerable distance from the intended crash site. The proposed hypotheses explain, for example, the absence of material traces, including craters, during the search for the remains of the Tunguska bolide in the vicinity of the forest collapse.
Андрущенко В.А., Сызранова Н.Г. Моделирование Тунгусского явления 1908 года в рамках двух возможных гипотез. Математическое моделирование и численные методы, 2023, № 3, с. 42–61.