Since the classical hypotheses of Bernoulli for beams and Kirchhoff for thin plates contradict the additional condition of incompressibility for rubber-like (incompressible) materials (invariability of the volume during deformation), a calculation model for a bending beam is proposed, which does not lead to a serious complication of the problem in comparison with the classical solution. The invariability of the volume is manifested under the action of a power load; in the case of a temperature load, the deformation of the volume change is not zero. The absence of volumetric deformations for rubber-like materials is a consequence of Hooke's law for such materials. Summing the linear deformations expressed in terms of stresses and taking Poisson's ratio 0.5, we obtain the equality of the indicated sum to zero. Many rubber-like materials are incompressible and low-modulus, which means their weak resistance to tension and shear, but the resistance of the material to change in volume tends to infinity, therefore the physical relations of the generalized Hooke's law are transformed into the so-called "neo- Hooke " equations of the relationship between stresses and strains. Of the two independent physical characteristics (modules) for incompressible materials, only one module remains, which characterizes the resistance of the medium to change in shape. In physical relations for an incompressible material, the product of an infinitely large volumetric modulus by the deformation of a change in volume equal to zero is an uncertainty that is replaced by some force function that has the dimension of stresses and is an additional unknown. At the same time, the system of governing equations of the mechanics of incompressible media is supplemented by the equation of invariability of volume. The scheme for solving the problem in displacements for traditional structural materials turns into a mixed scheme for rubber-like materials, since for them not only displacements but also the mentioned force function act as the main unknown sought function.
Фирсанов В.В. Моделирование изгиба балок из резиноподобных материалов. Математическое моделирование и численные методы, 2021, № 4, с. 3–16.