In this paper, we consider one of the possible feedback algorithms for the vertical landing of the returned first stage of the spacecraft for its reuse in the future. It is proposed to use for thrust correction not correction engines, but the main engine of the power plant of the spacecraft, which can be throttled to 60% of the maximum thrust value. A numerical experiment using the Monte Carlo method is performed to evaluate the performance of this algorithm. A soft landing is a landing with a speed of zero or no more than a few meters per second. The last section of the vertical landing is subject to investigation. The optimal program control in this problem statement in terms of minimum fuel consumption is free fall, then turning the engine on at full power until the moment of landing. It is assumed that such parameters as the speed and mass of the spacecraft's return module at an altitude of 2000 m, the specific impulse, as well as the air density and the coefficient of aerodynamic drag can be randomly deviated from the calculated values. It is assumed that these random variables are distributed according to the normal law, are independent, and their deviations from the calculated values do not exceed 1% for the engine pulse and 5% for all other variables. The landing speed is a random value for which the distribution parameters are calculated. The results of the calculation are analyzed.
Мозжорина Т.Ю., Осипов В.В. Моделирование и синтез оптимального управления вертикальной посадкой возвращаемых космических модулей. Математическое моделирование и численные методы. 2020. № 2. с. 81–94.