The paper considers long-term fluctuations of the Caspian Sea level as a nonlinear system output with positive and negative feedbacks. The Caspian Sea model with due consideration of an outflow into the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay is designed. Density distribution of the sea level is obtained as a solution to the corresponding Fokker — Planck — Kolmogorov equation. The bimodal probability density of the sea level distribution, which meets the endorheic Caspian Sea (if you cut off the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay), is shown to turn into the single-mode probability density in case of simultaneous influence of evaporation and seawater outflow into the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay on the sea level.
Frolov A. Modelling influence of outflow into the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay on probability density of the Caspian Sea level fluctuations. Маthematical Modeling and Coтputational Methods, 2016, №3 (11), pp. 79-92